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What are terpenes and terpenoids



When the laboratories get involved in studying hemp, their focus is generally on its constituent compounds.

For the most part, these focus on THC in CBD. However, some of this research centers on solvents in the concentration of terpenes found in the construction of this wondrous plant.

The quality level of the products derived from the plant tends to hinge on these contents. But that leaves us with an important question: what are terpenes?

So, at this point, having read through many of our materials, you probably have a pretty good idea of the meaning of terms like “cannabinoids” and “solvents”, but you may not yet be familiar with “terpenes”.

In the present article, we’ll attempt to remedy that situation.

The Flavor Comes from Terpenes

It’s important to note that the aroma, flavor, and color of any plant is derived from the quantity, strength, and type of terpenes that exist within that plant.

Terpenes, which are really just organic compounds, happen to appear within the composition of aromatic plants in general. It is the terpenes that provide the aroma, flavor, and color of the plant.

When oils are present, they deliver the terpenes within their composition. So it’s important to know that oils and resins that come from plants contain those terpenes.

Those creating fragrances and perfumes rely on this. But as a consumer, or potential consumer, of CBD oil products, you’ll want to understand that some of the aesthetic aspects of your experience are derived from terpenes.

Terpenes in Hemp and Cannabis

Cannabis, according to research, contains over 200 terpenes. These compounds are responsible for the aroma and flavor that you find in cannabis. Have you ever been sitting somewhere, perhaps in a park, and caught a particular smell that made you suddenly realize that someone nearby was smoking marijuana? The nature of that idiosyncratic smell is all about terpenes.

At the same time, it’s important to understand that there are number of different conditions that cannabis can treat in a powerful way: fibromyalgia, PTSD, ADHD, anxiety, migraines, multiple sclerosis, stress, and a number of others.

In fact, one cannabis derived substances already been approved by the FDA: BCP (beta-caryophyllene), a dietary terpene derived from cannabis.

This substance is important in relieving inflammation by activating the CB2 receptor. It is also, like CBD, non-psychoactive.

The Character of Terpenes

You may be interested to know that vitamin A is a terpene. It’s important for vision and many other things.

Evergreens produce an enormous amount of terpenes. Think of pine trees, Cedars, and Cypress trees. These are trees that have the leaves, or needles, year-round. Often, they produce pinecones or cones of some form. These types of trees produced terpenes in highly concentrated manners during the summertime.

Similarly, cannabis produces its own terpenes. A good example of this is a compound known as Alpha-Pinene. This compound can act as a natural bronchodilator as well as an expectorant. It’s great at treating coughs and relieving respiratory congestion.

Limonene is another common terpene found in cannabis. It functions as an antifungal, antibacterial, and antidepressant. Some even believe that this compound can work against cancer. It has also been found to function as a treatment for low blood pressure.

Myrcene is another common terpene found in cannabis. It tends to increase the permeability of cell membranes. This can open the doors for increased psychoactivity of THC.


In all, hemp contains 120 different terpenes. That’s a total number for all varieties of hemp. Different versions of hemp contain different numbers. If you purchase hemp oil that’s been derived from hemp seeds, some of the terpenes will be lost.

Importantly, the terpenes contained in Hemp are mostly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

Cannabinoids, themselves, have no flavor or aroma. In other words, all of the perceivable sensory elements involved in the experience of cannabis or CBD oil products are 100% the product of terpenes.

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CBD Oil and Arthritis For Could Be The Next Big Thing



Statistics by the Arthritis Foundation show there are about 54 million adults and 300,000 children in the U.S diagnosed from arthritis some other type of rheumatic disease causing joint pain. The number is actually believed to be higher than that because there are people who are suffering from arthritis but have not yet been diagnosed. Also, the number is actually expected to rise by about 49 percent by the year 2040.

Arthritis patients experience very troubling symptoms including pain, stiffness and decreased movement within the joints. These symptoms often get severe and worse over time, especially if nothing is done about the disease.

Arthritis is also associated with other troublesome symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Also, there are certain arthritis patients who tend to have other health problems such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease. These health problems tend to coexist with arthritis and they could be difficult on arthritis patients.

There are treatment programs as well as medications that are usually recommended for arthritis patients to ease the pain and other adverse effects of arthritis. However, there has been a continuing trend of patients looking for natural home remedies. CBD oil is one of the most preferred natural home remedies for arthritis.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD stands for cannabinoid and it naturally occurs in cannabis plants. CBD is not a psychoactive chemical, thus it will not get you high. Also, it can be extracted from the Hemp plant, a legal plant that does not contain THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) content and is mainly preferred by scientists.

THC, unlike CBD, can get you high or simply change a person’s mental state. There are many different CBD oil products available on the market, and the amount of CBD in them may vary.

How CBD Oil Works

The human body has an endocannabinoid system that contains two cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. Most of the CB1 receptors are found in the brain and are linked to the cognitive actions related to mood, coordination, memory, thinking and appetite. The CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are located in the immune system, thus they are highly associated with the body’s response to pain and inflammation.

CBD positively impacts the body by reducing the sensations of pain without causing side effects associated with standard treatments. CBD mainly targets the CB2 receptors indirectly, by inducing the body to produce more of its own cannabinoids. This helps provide relief from pain and also allow the body to maintain equilibrium which leads to feeling better all around.

THC attaches to the CB1 receptors, which explains why it is referred to as a psychoactive chemical. That’s why smoking or ingesting marijuana changes a person’s mental state or simply affects the user’s cognitive level.

CBD Oil for Arthritis Pain Relief

Arthritis patients suffer from a lot of pain. Researchers have confirmed that CBD oil has a positive effect on pain. That is actually one of the primary benefits of CBD oil. In 2017 a study was published in the journal Pain, whereby it analyzed the ability of CBD to prevent osteoarthritis pain and joint neuropathy. The findings established that CBD did both because it protected the nerves and decreased joint inflammation.

Also, a study in 2016 was conducted whereby CBD was used in rats with arthritis. Researchers discovered that it had reduced inflammation and overall pain in the rat’s affected joints without side effects. Researchers believe that the anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects of CBD oil hold a promise for people with arthritis.

How to Use CBD for Arthritis?

CBD oil can be used in two ways: topically or orally. You can apply it topically, as a liquid or tincture. Also, it is available in capsules which can be taken orally. You can also add the liquid CBD to your foods or drinks, or apply the cream on the affected areas.

It should be noted that the use of CBD oil, sometimes, could cause some side effects, which are generally not very serious. For example, it can cause sleep and nausea. Typically applying CBD oil can cause allergic reactions, but not to all users.

It is wise to consult a doctor before you begin using the oil. Also, there are certain drugs that can sometimes interact with certain prescription medications, primarily those that are changed and broken down by the liver. So it might be a good idea to avoid using the oil when you are under such kind of medication, without advice from your doctor.

CBD Oil Eases Other Chronic Pain Conditions

Research published in Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management indicated that CBD can ease the pain for individuals diagnosed with conditions such as multiple sclerosis and cancer. Other studies, also show that CBD can ease fibromyalgia pain.

A few studies conducted in mice reported a reduction of cancerous tumours. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has actually pointed out to CBD as a possible option for relieving symptoms caused by chemotherapy.

Other Benefits of CBD Oil

CBD oil has other benefits apart from relieving the pain of arthritis and other chronic pains. CBD oil has been established to have the ability to positively impact mental health. It can help in the reduction of anxiety. Research reported that CBD oil has considerable potential as a treatment for anxiety disorders. Another research published in The Permanente Journal reported that CBD oil can help reduce anxiety in young children.

Several studies have also pointed out CBD to a reduction of symptoms associated with depression. This is highly important for arthritis patients because according to Arthritis Foundation, those diagnosed with certain types of arthritis tend to have depression rates between two and ten times greater than the rates of the general population.

Is CBD Oil Safe?

The safety of CBD oil is usually a great concern when to its use for arthritis symptoms. Patients always concerned with the potential side effects of its use. According to some health experts and agencies, it is safe to use CBD oil. Although cannabinoid medicine is still in its early stages, unlike THC and marijuana, the risks associated with CBD are very low. The side effects which don’t always and not to everyone are also not too serious. In fact, the National Institute on Drug Abuse agrees that CBD is a safe drug to use with no addictive effects.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

CBD oil has a number of potential benefits, but one huge concern that people diagnosed with arthritis is its legality. To understand this better, you need to know that THC is the most well-known compound in the cannabis plant. This chemical is responsible for getting you high or changes your mental state when you smoke or ingest marijuana. However, unlike THC, CBD does not have psychoactive properties and that means that it does not create the same effect that one normally experiences when smoking or ingesting marijuana.

According to the U.S Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), THC makes marijuana illegal in a number of various states. As a result, whether CBD oil is legal or not is not quite so clear. However, there are some states that allow the consumption of marijuana and its extracts only for medical reasons. Some states have also approved the use of marijuana and its components for recreational use.

To know whether CBD oil or any other CBD product is legal or not really depends on several factors. Your geographical location and local laws must be considered.

What is the Proper CBD Dosing?

Cannabinoid medicine is so new, and the best way to use is to “to start slow and go slow”. This allows you to identify and understand how well your body responds without using more than the necessary amount

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CBD Oil Could Help Arthritis Patients



Over 50 million adults and more than three hundred thousand children are affected by arthritis or some other joint pain diseases in the US. If we include the number of the people who haven’t been diagnosed with arthritis yet, the number can rise up to 90 million. This number is expected to keep on growing and by 2040, the number might have grown by 49 percent.

Arthritis patients usually suffers from a lot of pain and with time the pain continues to increase and movement of the joints is really restricted. Arthritis brings about other symptoms which are very troublesome such as depression and anxiety. If you have other problems that coexist with arthritis such as diabetes, obesity, heart diseases, and obesity then it can be very tough on you.

There are some medication as well as treatment programs that can help an arthritis patient ease the pain and other negative effects but most of the people are actually looking for home remedies that are natural. This is where cannabinoids (CBD oil) comes in.

What is CBD oil?

CBD oil is simply the short form of cannabinoids and it is explained to be one of the chemical compounds that are found in the marijuana plant (cannabis sativa). So in simple terms CBD oil is a type of oil that is developed using a particular compound from a cannabis sativa plant. Get it from us, CBD oil is not pot! It will not get you high. Actually CBD oil can also be extracted from the Hemp plant and that’s where many scientists extract the CBD oil as the plant is legal and it does not contain THC content contained in the marijuana plant. CBD oil has health benefits which we are going to discuss on this article. Just keep reading.

CBD oil is beginning to hit the mainstreams because of the debates in different countries about whether marijuana should be legalized or not. But this oil have some history and it has been used for quite some time to provide pain relief in different countries in the world. The first use of the CBD oil actually dates back even before Christ in the year, 3000B.C. Cannabis has also been used by the Chinese in like forever. But because of the law against the Marijuana plant the extraction of this oil has been very limited.

How CBD oil.

Our bodies usually have two cannabinoid receptors i.e. CB1 and CB2. The majority of the CB1 are usually located in our brains and scientists associates them with the brain functions that relates to memory, thinking, mood, coordination and appetite. On the other hand, the CB2 receptors are usually found in our immune systems and they are responsible for the body’s response to inflammation and pain.

Benefits of the CBD oil.

Recent studies proves that CBD oil can play a vital role in the treatment of arthritis and relieve the pain associated with inflammation. This is one of the greatest benefit of CBD oil and research confirms that it is true. A study that was conducted in 2017 analyzing the effect of CBD oil on people with arthritis revealed that CBD oil decreases both inflammation and joint pain. CBD oil usually serves as protectant to the nerves of the patients and hence reducing pain. There still no scientific evidence that prove conclusively the effect of CBD oil in treating arthritis.

How to use CBD for arthritis.

You can apply the CBD oil topically, as a tincture, liquid and it is also available in capsules. The capsules can be taken orally, or add the liquid to your foods and drinks, or just apply the cream of the oil on the places you are experiencing pain. Sometimes this oil can have some side effects but the effects are not so serious. Some effects are for example sleep and nausea. Applying the cream oil can cause allergic reactions but not to all people, it’s just a very small percentage of people who experience this effect. Most of the studies about this oil are done on rodents but the researchers believe that the oil can relieve pain caused by osteoarthritis. It might be a good idea if you consult a doctor before you begin using this oil. You should also be sure about your local law against the use of CBD oil. You don’t want to be on the other side of the law, if it is illegal in your area just try other means.

Other benefits of CBD oil.

Research has indicated that CBD oil has other benefits apart from helping ease the pain of arthritis. CBD oil can be used to relieve other chronic conditions as well. A study that was published in therapeutics and clinical management revealed that CBD oil can be used to ease pain in patients diagnosed with chronic conditions such as cancer and sclerosis.

CBD oil has also been associated with helping various mental problems such as reducing anxiety. Research proves that CBD oil can be a potential treatment of anxiety disorders and a study published in the Permanente journal revealed that CBD oil can even be used to treat anxiety in small children.

Other studies have suggested that CBD oil can be used in reduction of symptoms associated with depression. This is actually a great benefit to the patients diagnosed with arthritis. According to the arthritis foundation, the rate of depression among the arthritis patients is very high as compared to other people.

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Could CBD Cream Be The Best Treatment For CBD and Arthritis



Arthritis, or inflammation of joints, is a common problem and the leading cause of disability in the US due to pain, stiffness and limited mobility. Some people cannot function without taking pain medicine and other drugs. The two common forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that affects joint cartilage and bones in the hip, the knees and the thumb, causing damage to the joint, intermittent inflammation and damage to nerves in the limbs. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that mostly occurs in the hands and feet joints, causing damage to joints and the major symptom is pain.

Modern Treatments

Treatment of arthritis aims to restore joint function and relieve symptoms through pain killers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), counter-irritants, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic response modifiers, and corticosteroids. The drugs do not heal and they come with various unpleasant side effects for which some people end up taking even more pills. People are tired of chronic medications with their adverse side effects. They are looking for natural products that can improve their health while reducing pain and inflammation. CBD is one such natural product that is taking the holistic health world by storm because it works well, it has mild to moderate side effects, it does not cause a high and it is not addictive.

CBD is a Popular Remedy for Arthritis Sufferers

While users are raving about the effectiveness of CBD with no side effects for some people and mild to moderate side effects for others, scientists are lagging behind in their research. Studies been focused on animals because, in the West, clinical studies on cannabis were illegal. Still, what works for animals works for humans and, so far, research says CBD is a potential remedy for arthritis.

CBD is Anti-Inflammatory

CBD is an anti-inflammatory agent. When it enters the body, it is absorbed and it interacts with the cannabinoid receptors. The effect is to reduce inflammation when there is inflammation, and reduce pain when there is pain. The combined action of pain relief and reduction of inflammation is exactly what arthritis patients need.

So far scientists have found CBD to be useful pain relief for people with arthritis. In one laboratory animal study, CBD caused a significant reduction in pain and inflammation in the animals. The researchers believe that the non-psychoactive phytochemicals in cannabis, such as CBD, may soon be used for relief of chronic pain. (1).

In a study done in 2011, CBD reduced inflammatory pain in rats by affecting how pain receptors respond to pain. (2).

A 2014 review of the existing database of research on animals found that CBD may be effective for reducing the pain due to osteoarthritis.

An animal study carried out in 2017 and published in Pain focused on osteoarthritis and its treatment with CBD. The scientists found that CBD was effective in reducing the signs of pain and inflammation and it was safe for the animals. (3).

A human study completed and published in 2006 focused on Sativex, a cannabis-based mouth spray, as pain relief for arthritis. Of the 58 patients, some were randomized to Sativex while others were on placebo. Sativex produced significant improvements in pain at rest, pain on movement, quality of sleep, etc. but it did not improve morning stiffness. The side effects ranged from mild to moderate but there were no adverse withdrawal symptoms. (4).

Topical Application is Best

CBD does not work very well with water therefore it has poor bioavailability when taken orally. Also, it takes longer (up to 2 hours) to take effect since it has to be processed by the digested tract before it is absorbed into the body to bring relief. Topical application avoids the digestive tract and goes to work directly on the target area and it has been found to be very effective. A study published in 2016 confirmed that topical application of CBD relieved pain and inflammation related to arthritis. (5). The good news for arthritis sufferers is that CBD has no side effects for some people and it has mild to moderate side effects on other people. Secondly, it is not psychoactive therefore the users do not get a high. Thirdly it is not addictive. Fourthly it can be tolerated even after long term use.

Scientific evidence on the efficacy of CBD for arthritis is still scarce but so far animal studies have been promising. More clinical research is required.

Quality Matters

There are many CBD topical products available in online stores. Because CBD manufacturers are not yet regulated, consumers need to research them. If a manufacturer insists on organic non-GMO hemp and works with certified farmers, and then uses a safe extraction method such as CO2 extraction, then the quality of the product is assured. The concentration of CBD in the product should be clear on the packaging so that consumers can tell how much CBD is in a gel or cream in order to determine dose.


  1. Xiong W and others. (2012, Jun 4). Journal of Experimental Medicine. Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors.
  2. Schuelert N1, McDougall JJ. (2011, Aug). Neuroscience Letters. The abnormal cannabidiol analogue O-1602 reduces nociception in a rat model of acute arthritis via the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55.
  3. Philpott HT, O’Brien M and McDougall JJ. (2017, Dec). Pain. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.
  4. Blake DR and others. (2006, Jan). Rheumatology (Oxford). Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.
  5. Hammel D.C. (2016, Jul). European Journal of Pain. Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis.


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